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Fiddler crabs are small, easy pets to take care of and are easier than fish. They create a lot of waste, though, so many people who don’t know how to clean up after them and don’t bother. However, you can clean their tank simply enough! Follow these steps to make sure your crabby friend has a clean place to live.
EditDoing a Partial Clean
- Suck up any detritus. Using a gravel siphon or turkey baster, remove bits of food and poop. Fiddler crab poop looks like tiny brown dots about the size of their eyes, and because of their small size they are easy to take out. Try not to suck up too much sand, or you’ll just be dumping it away.
- Move the sand around a little to uncover some waste that may have been buried.
- Do a partial water change. Change 15-25% of water volume, and remember to add a water conditioner and 1/2 teaspoon of marine salt per 1.5-2 liters of water.
- If there’s floating waste in the water, quickly scoop it out with a fish net before it settles.
- Clean decorations and food bowls (if any). Use a 5-10% bleach solution to soak non-absorbent decorations for no more than 10 minutes. Rinse and dry them thoroughly. If you want to scrub them, then you can when rinsing. For live plants or absorbent materials like wood, soak in slightly salty water (made with a few teaspoons of salt in 1.5-2 liters of water) for 10 minutes and scrub with a clean tool.
- Always let the objects dry fully before placing them back in the tank. If you used bleach, make sure there is no bleach smell left.
EditDoing a Full Clean
- Unplug everything and move the crabs to a holding container. A bucket with a shallow level of warm, dechlorinated brackish water works. When removing the heater, always pull the electrical plug first and then wait 15 minutes before removing it from the water.
- If the electrical plug to an appliance is wet, do not pull it out, until you dry it.
- Clean the appliances. Take out the filter cartridge and set it aside in a container of tank water. This will keep some beneficial bacteria. Rinse the heater, filter, and air tube/stone (if using) in running water. Rub with a cleaning pad or your hands to clean out filth. Pat dry or let air dry.
- Make sure that water doesn’t drip from the appliances to their plugs. If you do get water on the electrical plugs, let them air dry to dry out fully. Do not plug in and use when wet.
- Only wash the main body of the appliance.
- Clean the decorations and sand. Cleaning the decorations is the same as described in step three of “Doing a Partial Clean”. The sand, however, can’t just be soaked and rinsed. Suck up waste using the siphon/turkey baster to get rid of the easy waste first. Drain off as much water as you can. Place the sand in a bucket and fill the bucket with tap water. Swish the sand around inside the bucket to clean it, then drain off the water. Repeat until the water does not have any floating bits of waste.
- You can replace some of the old sand if you want, and it is recommended that every few months that you do so.
- Wash the entire tank. First rinse out any sand. If you feel that the tank needs a thorough disinfection, let a 10% bleach solution sit inside for 10 minutes. If there is a hard water stain/salt stain but you don’t want to use bleach, spray the walls of the tank with vinegar and let it sit for five to ten minutes. Scrub every corner of the tank if necessary, and rinse out. Let the tank dry outside until the bleach/vinegar smell is gone and it is completely free of water. If you can’t do outside, you can place it in a well-ventilated room.
- Replace all of the decorations and appliances. Add the sand first. If you have a big decoration, you can add that in next, so when you place the water in, you can pour it on the decoration (as not to disturb the sand). If you have delicate decorations, add them after adding water. Add the water, and then the filter, heater, etc. For the heater, place the body in the water for 15 minutes before plugging it in. Wait for the heater to warm the water if you used colder water, then add in anything else (decorations, plants). Finally, add the crabs in.
- Make sure your water is treated and brackish.
- A partial clean can be done once every one to two weeks, and a full clean every few months.
- Reserve cleaning materials for crab-use only to prevent contamination.
- Always clean decorations and food bowls outside of the tank so you don’t bother the crabs.
- You don’t have to change the filter cartridge unless it is not working, is falling apart, or very dirty. Sand may make your filter cartridge dirtier faster. Rinsing will clean out most of the gunk (wash in treated water!).
- For ease of cleaning, you can put fine gravel in the water area of the tank. Although many people debate about gravel vs. sand, with many saying sand is best and that gravel hurts the crabs. If you absolutely can’t do all sand for some reason, fine gravel in the water is okay.
- Always make a drip loop in the appliances’ cords. Brackish water conducts electricity better than fresh, so you want to make sure you don’t electrocute/shock yourself or the crabs.
- Don’t use more than 10% bleach or soak for more than 10 minutes. It can discolor and damage your decorations.
- Scented or colored bleach will not work here.
- Removing the heater from the water without waiting for it to cool after unplugging it (or not unplugging it) can lead to the heater glass cracking (temperature difference).
- Cleaning the sand while in the tank is not recommended because it can scratch the glass walls.
- Bleach should only be used if your tank/decorations are really in need of it.
- Make sure the other organisms, if any, living with your crabs can take the salinity.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Gravel siphon or turkey baster
- Scrubbing pad or tool
- Marine salt
- Water conditioner
- White vinegar
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If you’ve run out of brown sugar while you’re in the middle of baking something, you probably can’t just run to the store. Instead, make your own brown sugar by mixing granulated sugar with molasses. Or substitute other pantry staples, but keep in mind that the flavor and texture of your baked goods might be a little different. Once you’ve made your own brown sugar, learn how to store it and soften it if it becomes a little hard.
- 1 cup (200 g) granulated sugar
- 2 tablespoons (40 g) to 1/4 cup (84 g) molasses
Makes 1 cup (200 g) of brown sugar
EditMaking Brown Sugar Using Molasses
- Measure sugar and molasses into a mixing bowl. Pour 1 cup (200 g) of granulated sugar into a mixing bowl. Add molasses according to your taste or the type of brown sugar you want. For light brown sugar, use 2 tablespoons (40 g) of molasses. For dark brown sugar, you can use up to 1/4 cup (84 g) of molasses.
Combine the molasses and sugar in a mixer. For the best texture, use a stand or electric mixer to combine the molasses and sugar until the mixture looks fluffy and golden brown. This can take several minutes.
- Ensure that you’re using true molasses, not blackstrap molasses. Blackstrap molasses is more refined, less sweet, and higher in sodium than true molasses.
Consider mixing the molasses and sugar with a fork. If you don’t have a mixer or just want to make a little brown sugar, you can put the molasses and sugar into a small bowl. Use a fork to combine the mixture until it becomes brown sugar.
- You can also mix the brown sugar by combining the ingredients in a food processor.
Double or triple the batch. If you want to make a large batch of brown sugar to use in several recipes, you can easily double or triple the ingredients. Use a large mixing bowl and electric or stand mixer to combine the brown sugar. Whisk the sugar and molasses for about 5 minutes.
- If you’re baking with the brown sugar, you don’t even need to combine the sugar and molasses; just add the ingredients to the recipe. For example, if you’re making cookies that call for brown sugar, just add extra granulated sugar and the molasses along with the other ingredients.
EditUsing Brown Sugar Alternatives
- Use honey instead of brown sugar. If you don’t have brown sugar or molasses on hand, consider using honey in place of the brown sugar in a recipe. To substitute honey, use 1/2 cup (170 g) to 3/4 cup (255 g) of honey for each 1 cup (200 g) of brown sugar called for and add 1/4 teaspoon of baking powder. You should also reduce the liquids in the recipe by 20% and turn down the oven temperature by 25 degrees.
- Avoid substituting honey in recipes that need you to cream butter with the brown sugar. Instead, use honey in soft-textured cake, ice cream, or pudding recipes.
- Substitute maple syrup for brown sugar. You can use maple syrup instead of brown sugar, but you’ll need to reduce the liquid in the recipe by 1/2 cup (120 ml) for each 1 cup (240 ml) of maple syrup you use. Avoid using maple syrup in recipes where you need to cream butter with the sugar. Consider substituting maple syrup in pudding, candy, caramel, and ice cream recipes.
- If you have maple sugar, you can substitute equal amounts for the brown sugar and you won’t need to reduce the liquid in a recipe.
- Try coconut or date sugar. If you have coconut or date sugar in your pantry, you can use it to replace brown sugar in a recipe. You can use it in caramels and candies, but it does melt 10 degrees lower than standard sugar. You can also bake with it although your baked goods may have a drier texture.
- If you want to add moisture, consider adding applesauce or mashed banana.
EditStoring and Softening Homemade Brown Sugar
- Store the brown sugar in an airtight container. Put the brown sugar in an airtight container in your pantry. You can store the brown sugar at room temperature indefinitely, but it may harden over time as it dries out.
- If you don’t have an airtight storage container, you can keep the brown sugar in a plastic food storage bag with a zipper.
- Soften brown sugar in the microwave. If you need to soften brown sugar quickly, put the lump of brown sugar into a microwave-safe bowl. Moisten a paper towel with water and lay it over the brown sugar. Microwave the brown sugar for 15 to 20 seconds and check to see if it’s softened. If not, microwave it for another 15 to 20 seconds.
- If the brown sugar is so hard that it’s hard to divide the lump into a bowl, add a few teaspoons of water to the sugar before you microwave it.
- Place a piece of bread with the brown sugar. You can also soften brown sugar by storing it with a piece of fresh bread for a few days. The moisture from the bread softens the sugar. Just be sure you remember to toss out the bread before too long because it will dry out.
- You could also place a slice or two of apple in the container to keep the brown sugar soft.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Measuring cups and spoons
- Digital scale
- Mixing bowl
- Fork or whisk
- Food processor, optional
- Electric or stand mixer
- Airtight container
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Jig fishing is a sport that uses jig bait hooks, which mimic prey for large fish. Jig fishing should be done in some kind of heavy cover, where large fish usually hide to wait for their next meal, and not in open water. Be sure to use a heavy-duty rod, strong fishing line, and a good choice of jigs to catch fish.
EditChoosing Your Equipment
- Buy a heavy-duty fishing rod. For jig fishing, purchase a heavy action or extra-heavy action rod. A stronger rod will handle large fish better and hold up if your line gets caught in the heavy cover (e.g. seaweed) that they often hide in. Shop for a fishing rod at your local sporting goods store to properly gauge the feel and sturdiness of different models.
When your child doesn’t feel well, you want to do everything in your power to help them feel better. Stomach aches are common and they may be caused by any number of reasons. By ruling out emergencies, comforting your child, and providing natural relief you can help ease your child’s discomfort.
EditRuling Out Emergencies
- Know when to call a doctor. Sometimes, a stomach ache can be serious or a sign of a medical condition. Such conditions will usually cause your child to exhibit a range of symptoms.
Know when to call poison control. A stomach ache could be a result of consuming something poisonous, such as a chemical, medicine, cleaning product, or other dangerous substance. If your child has consumed (or you think they have consumed) a non-edible item or liquid, call your local poison control center. You can reach the American Association of Poison Control Centers at (800)222-1222. Some signs that your child may have ingested poison include:
- Persistent pain on the right side of their abdomen (a symptoms of appendicitis)
- Pain only in one specific part of the abdomen
- Severe or rapidly worsening pain
- Pain lasting for more than 24 hours
- Tenderness when you put pressure on their belly
- A swollen abdomen
- An abdomen that is hard or stiff to the touch
- Pain or swelling in the groin (including testicles)
- Pain during urination
- High fever
- Frequent vomiting or diarrhea; inability to keep water down
- Blood in the stool/vomit or rectal bleeding
- A recent injury to the abdomen
- Unexplained vomiting or diarrhea
- Chest pain
- Blurred vision
- Unexplained stains on clothing
- Burns on lips, mouth, or skin
- Excessive drooling
- Bad breath
- Trouble breathing
EditSoothing Your Child
- Get their mind off of it. Stories, movies, and board games can be used to pass the time and help your child forget about their tummy ache. Do your best to have fun while you wait for the pain to pass.
- Give your child a warm bath. Warm water help your child to relax, and help them feel better. Also, baths can be fun! Toss in some bubbles and bath toys to encourage them to forget the stomach ache for a while.
- Ask them to drink water. If your child’s stomach ache is not an emergency, it may be as simple as slight dehydration. Offer your child some water and encourage them to drink. You may want to add a bit of fruit (such as watermelon or orange) to the water to make it taste better for them.
- Feed your child bland foods. Bland white foods can help absorb any excess acid floating around in your child’s tummy. A plain slice of whole wheat bread is an excellent choice, as well as dry crackers or plain rice.
- Offer warm chicken broth. Chicken broth (especially broth made from real chicken bones) is a mild, nutritious, and easy-to-digest food. The warm liquid is also soothing. Especially if your child does not want to eat, try offering some chicken broth to help keep them nourished and hydrated.
- If your child does not eat chicken, you can offer vegetable broth instead.
- Provide affection. Sometimes hugs and kisses are the best medicine! If your child feels loved and supported throughout the period of discomfort, they will be less likely to experience negative feelings. Provide plenty of affection and attention to keep them happy and calm.
- Encourage your child to rest. Your child needs rest in order to recover and heal. They may want to press a pillow against their stomach. Snuggle together on the couch or lie down beside them and rub their tummy.
- Ask your child to lie down on their side if it seems like they have gas.
EditProviding Natural Relief
- Offer papaya, ginger, or peppermint chews. Papaya, ginger, and peppermint are excellent for soothing upset tummies. Papaya, ginger, and peppermint chews are all available at health food stores. These items resemble candy and taste good, so your child is more likely to eat it.
- Always be sure to read the packaging to see how many chews your child can eat in a day. Be sure as well that your child is old enough to consume the chews safely.
- Make tea to soothe your child’s stomach. Ginger and mint are also available in tea form. These warm beverages work quickly to ease stomach discomfort. Make your child a cup of warm mint or ginger tea. You may add a bit of honey if it helps them to enjoy it.
- Avoid adding white sugar to the tea, as this may aggravate the child’s tummy.
- Don’t add honey if the child is under one year old, either. Since infants don’t have the right digestive organisms, honey can cause a dangerous illness called infant botulism.
- Try giving your child gripe water. Gripe water is a product sold to relieve colic and other tummy troubles in infants, but it can be helpful for older kids too. The main ingredient is fennel oil, which can help ease gas, bloating, or upset stomach. Try to avoid gripe water varieties that contain sweetener (sucrose) or alcohol.
- Place a heating pad on your child’s stomach. Warmth can encourage your child’s stomach muscles to relax, helping to ease the discomfort. Use a traditional heating pad (on low), or warm a cloth in the microwave.
- Massage your child’s tummy. With soft hands, rub circles around your child’s stomach. This should provide some comfort, while also encouraging their muscles to relax. Continue this for 5-10 minutes. Avoid moving too quickly or pressing too hard.
- Ask them if they had too much to eat; overeating can cause bloating or stomach aches.
- If a bug is going around your child may just have a different type of bug with big stomach pains!
- Don’t panic or stress the child out.
- If your child is a girl, make sure she is not on her period.
- Don’t give your child soda if they are ill. The acidic content of the drink will make them feel much worse.
- If your child throws up, encourage and patiently help him/her to drink water after to get rid of the taste.
- Yogurt is full of good bacteria and is, therefore, a good choice for a child with disturbed digestive system.
- “I’ve got tummy ache” is one of the top excuses used by children to get out of doing things they don’t want to do. Make sure your child is telling the truth about their symptoms.
- Call a doctor if your child doesn’t respond to any of the advice above.
- Be sure to tell the doctor if your child has special medical needs or concerns.
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This wikiHow teaches you how to create a new text or a voice chat channel on a Discord server, using Android. You need to have administrator privileges on a server to create a channel.
Edit10 Second Summary
1. Open the Discord app.
2. Tap the three horizontal lines.
3. Tap on a server icon.
4. Find TEXT CHANNELS or VOICE CHANNELS on the menu.
5. Tap the “+” icon.
6. Tap on the Channel Name field.
7. Enter a channel name.
8. Tap the white floppy disk button.
- Open the Discord app on your device. The Discord icon looks like a blue circle with a white game controller in it.
- Tap the three horizontal lines icon. This icon is located in the upper-left corner of your screen. It will open your navigation menu.
- Alternatively, you can swipe right from the left edge of your screen to open this menu.
- Tap on a server icon on the navigation panel. You will see a list of all your servers on the left-hand side of your screen. Tap on the server you want to use for your channel.
- Find the “TEXT CHANNELS” or “VOICE CHANNELS” heading. These sections will list of all the text and voice chat channels on this server.
- Tap the icon next to TEXT CHANNELS or VOICE CHANNELS. It will open the Create Channel page. This button will let you create a text or voice chat channel on this server.
- You have to be a server admin to create a channel. If you don’t have administrator privileges, you won’t see the “+” icon here.
- Tap on the field.
- Enter a channel name. This will be the name of your new channel on this server.
- Select who can access your chat channel on this server. Under the “WHO CAN ACCESS THIS CHANNEL” heading, tap and check the box next to all the members you want to add to your channel.
- If you don’t have any contacts on this server, this option will appear as @everyone.
- Tap the Save button. It looks like a white floppy disk icon in the lower-right corner of your screen. It will create your text or voice chat channel.
- If you create a text channel, Discord will automatically open your channel on your screen after you tap the white floppy disk icon.
- If you create a voice channel, Discord will open your navigation menu after you tap the white floppy disk icon. Tap on your channel name under the VOICE CHANNELS heading to access your voice channel.
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If you cannot do a traditional push up now, do not worry. There are a variety of exercises you can do that will prepare you for traditional push ups. If you are a beginner, start with wall, tabletop or incline push ups. Once you have mastered these, move on to knee push ups and positive or negative-form push ups. Additionally, by strengthening the muscles you use to perform push ups, such as your shoulders, pectorals, and abdomen, you will be one step closer to performing traditional push ups.
EditPerforming Beginner Push Ups
- Start with wall push ups. Stand three to four feet away from a wall and face the wall. Lean toward the wall and place your hands shoulder-width apart. Slowly bend your elbows to lower yourself to the wall. Once your chest touches the wall – or nearly does so – push up until your arms are straight but slightly bent. This is one wall push up.
Try tabletop push ups. Place a mat on the floor. Get on your hands and knees. Your arms and back should be straight and your knees bent. Slowly lower your upper body toward the floor. Once your nose almost touches the mat, slowly push up with your arms back to the starting position. This is one tabletop push up.
- Do three sets of five to twenty wall push ups. Practice this three times a week.
Attempt an incline push up. Place your hands shoulder-width apart on a sturdy, elevated surface like a sofa arm, bench, chair or table. Stretch your legs and place your feet straight out behind you. Your back should be straight and your body should be positioned diagonally relative to the floor. Slowly lower your upper body toward the elevated surface until your elbows are bent at a 90-degree angle. Then slowly push back up to the starting position. This is one incline push up.
- Do three sets of five to ten tabletop push ups. Practice this three times a week.
- Make sure your back is straight throughout the whole exercise.
- Make sure your elbows are close to your body and not sticking out when performing this exercise.
- Do three sets of five to ten incline push ups. Practice this three times a week.
EditMaking Further Progress
- Attempt a knee push up. Place a mat on the floor. Get on your hands and knees. Move your hands forward until your body is positioned diagonally relative to the floor. Crisscross your calves and raise your feet up until they are suspended in the air. With your back straight, slowly lower your upper body to the ground until your elbows are bent at a 90-degree angle. Then slowly push back up to the starting position. Your arms should be straight with a slight bend at the elbow. This is one knee push up.
- Make sure to keep your back straight and tighten your core as you perform this exercise.
- You can place a towel or pillow under your knees to cushion them.
- Do three sets of five to ten knee push ups. Practice this three times a week.
- Try a negative push up. Place a mat on the floor. Start in a high plank position as if you are about to do a real push up. Do not lock your elbows; they should be slightly bent. Then slowly lower your body all the way to the ground until it is resting on the mat. This is one negative push up.
- Do three sets of five to ten negative push ups. Practice this three times a week.
- Make sure to tighten your abdominal muscles while you perform this exercise.
- Do a positive push up. Place a mat on the floor. Lie stomach-down on the mat. Place your hands flat on the floor slightly under your chest. Slowly push up to the high plank position. Hold this position for five seconds and then lower yourself back to the ground. This is one positive push up.
- Do three sets of five to ten positive push ups. Practice this exercise three times a week.
- If you cannot push yourself all the way up to the high plank position, then push up to a height you are comfortable with.
EditStrengthening Your Muscles
- Try a one-arm tricep extension. Stand straight with your feet slightly apart. Grab a dumbbell with one hand and raise it above your head. Your arm should be straight with your elbow slightly bent. Slowly lower the dumbbell behind your head until your elbow is bent at a 90-degree angle. Then slowly raise the dumbbell above your head back to the starting position. This is one extension.
- Start with a three to five pound dumbbell.
- Do three sets of five to ten tricep extensions for each arm. Practice this three times a week and work up the number of reps per set to 15.
- Then, gradually increase the weight and reduce the amount of reps per set until you can only do between 6 to 10 reps with good form.
- Do a palms-in shoulder press. Grab two dumbbells and stand with your feet slightly apart. Raise the dumbbells to shoulder level and hold them there. Your palms should be facing each other at this point. Slowly raise the dumbbells above your head until your arms are straight with your elbows slightly bent. Then slowly lower them back down to shoulder level. This is one shoulder press.
- Start with a three to five pound dumbbell.
- Do three sets of five to ten shoulder presses. Practice this exercise three times a week. As with the one-arm tricep extension, work up to 15 reps per set, then increase the weight and reduce your reps.
- Give a forearm plank a try. Place a mat on the floor and lie stomach-down on it. Place your forearms on the floor and raise yourself up on your toes. In this position, your elbows should be under and aligned with your shoulders. You can either place your palms flat on the floor, or clench them into fists. This is the plank position. Hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds.
- Make sure your forearms are shoulder-width apart, and your feet slightly apart as well.
- Also make sure your back is straight and your abdomen tight. Your bottom should not be sagging or sticking up in the air.
- Do three sets of 15 to 30 seconds. Practice this three times a week. Gradually try to work up to doing 3 one-minute holds.
EditDoing a Proper Push Up
- Begin in a high plank position. Place a mat on the floor and get on your hands and knees. Your arms should be straight and your hands should be positioned underneath your shoulders. Then straighten out your legs and ground your toes into the floor. Now you are in a high plank position.
- Your feet should be slightly apart in the position.
- Tighten your abdomen and buttocks. Doing this will ensure that your back remains straight as you do your push ups. If not, then make sure your back is straight. You do not want your bottom to be sagging or sticking up in the air.
- Lower yourself to the ground. Slowly lower yourself to the ground until your elbows are bent at a 90-degree angle. As you lower yourself, do not look straight down. Instead, focus your eyes on a point about two to three feet ahead of you. This will help keep your neck in a neutral position.
- As you lower yourself to the ground, make sure your elbows are tucked close to your sides.
- Breathe in as you lower yourself to the ground.
- Push back up. Do this once your elbows hit the 90-degree angle. Slowly push back up to the starting position. Congratulations, you just completed one push up! Start with three sets of five to eight push ups. Practice this three times a week.
- Remember to keep your back straight as you push up.
- Exhale as you push back up.
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If you understand how to read piano chords, you can sit down and play nearly any song with a basic chord chart – you don’t even have to learn a lot of music theory or know how to read sheet music. Chord notations can be intimidating, but they’ll make more sense once you learn your scales and understand a little about piano chord theory.
EditReading Chord Charts
- Find the chord chart. Normal sheet music would have the exact notes of the chord symbolized on the staff. With a chord chart, you just have a series of letters and numbers that represents each chord.
Identify the root note of a chord. On a chord chart, the root note is the first capital letter for the name of the chord. The root note is the first note you play, and the note upon which the rest of the chord is built.
- The name of the chord tells you how to build the chord on the piano. It gives you information about which keys to put your fingers on to play that chord.
Hear the difference between major and minor chords. Major and minor chords are some of the most basic, and make up the vast majority of songs you would play on piano. A minor chord is, essentially, a major chord turned upside down.
- All the other notes in a chord are typically named in relation to the root note. For example, a seventh chord is named because the last note in the chord is the seventh note away from the root note.
Find sharps and flats. Many keys have sharps or flats in their names, usually represented in the chord name as a “#” for a sharp or a “b” for a flat. These correspond to the black keys on your piano.
- Major chords and minor chords are both three-note chords. Major chords typically are notated simply by the capital letter of the root note. However, seventh chords are the exception to this rule. If you see “C7” on a chord chart, that refers to a C Seventh chord, which is different from a C Major Seventh chord. For seventh chords, you’ll see “major” abbreviated either with a “M” or “maj” after the root note.
- For minor chords, there will be a lower-case “m” after the capital letter. When you play a minor chord, the middle note is lowered relative to the major chord, but the other two notes remain the same. This gives a minor chord a sadder, more serious tone.
Start with simple chords. There are six basic chords that can be played on piano using only the white keys – three major chords and three minor chords. You can play songs using these chords without having to worry about sharps and flats.
- The black key to the right of a white key is that key’s sharp. For example, the black key immediately to the right of C is C sharp. The black key immediately to the left of a white key, on the other hand, is that key’s flat.
- Black keys are both to the right and to the left of different white keys. So the same black key that could be considered C sharp could also be considered D flat. Keep this in mind when you’re trying to find notes on the piano keyboard.
Read the next part of the notation to build the chord. Following the root note and whether the chord is major or minor, the name of the chord will list other information you’ll need to play the chord on the piano.
- The three major chords are C, G, and F. The three minor chords are A minor, D minor, and E minor. These chords are a good place to start if you’re new to piano.
Memorize common chords. Check the chord charts for some of your favorite songs to see what chords show up the most often. Write them down and memorize the notes that you play. Whenever you see that notation, you’ll know what chord to play without having to get bogged down in music theory.
- Different types of chords are built in different ways. To understand this from the name of the chord, you’ll need to learn a little vocabulary. For example, if you see “Caug” on a chord chart, you need to play an augmented C chord. When you augment a chord, you take the major chord and raise the last note a half step. Since a C Major chord would be C-E-G, and a “Caug” chord would be C-E-G sharp.
- A diminished chord is created in nearly the opposite way, by lowering the middle and last notes a half step. For example, if you saw the name “Cdim” on a chord chart, you would play C-E flat-G flat.
- Search online for fingering charts that will show you where to place your fingers for certain chords. You can identify “chord shapes” that will remain the same no matter what the root note. You must place your first finger on the key that corresponds to the root note.
- Identify whole and half steps. If you look at the keyboard on a piano, you’ll see white keys with black keys between them. Black keys are grouped in pairs and in groups of three, with a space between. The pattern repeats up and down the entire keyboard.
- The distance between a white key and the black key right next to it is a half step. The distance between two white keys that have a black key between them is a whole step.
- Practice making whole and half steps up and down the keyboard to get a hands-on understanding of how they work and how the notes relate to one another.
- Play the scale for different keys. The scale for a key starts at the root note for that key. All scales follow the “whole-whole-half whole-whole-half” pattern. Once you find the root note, you can play the entire scale by following that pattern.
- You can find the scales on your own without worrying about any sheet music. Start with C and play each white key until you get to the next C on the keyboard. You’ve just played the C Major scale, which uses only white keys.
- Move over to the D and follow the same “whole-whole-half whole-whole-half” step pattern to find the D Major scale. By following the same pattern one key over, you now have to use two black keys – F sharp and C sharp.
- You can follow this pattern from any key on the piano to get the scale for that note. Once your fingers get used to playing the pattern, you may find that you can play a scale without even looking at the keys.
- Look for chords within the scale. Once you know the scale, you can find all the major chords by stacking notes in relation to the root note. Form a chord by playing three or four notes of the scale, starting with the root note.
- The major chord is the main chord formed by the first, third, and fifth notes in the root note’s scale. For example, since the first five notes of the C scale are C-D-E-F-G, the C Major chord is C-E-G.
- To make a minor chord, the third note is lowered a half-step. For example, C minor would be C-E flat-G. If you play the major chord followed by the minor chord for the same root note, you can hear the difference between the two types of chords.
- Compare chord names to notes of the scale. Once you know the scale, you can figure out how to play the chord by looking at the name of the chord. The chord name tells you how that particular chord differs from the major chord.
- For example, with a seventh chord, you play four notes instead of three, the fourth being the seventh note in the scale lowered a half-step. So if you see “C7,” you know to play C-E-G-B flat.
EditUnderstanding Chord Theory
- Find the key signature. The symbols at the beginning of the staff lines on a piece of sheet music show you how to play the song. Following the clef symbol to identify the treble or bass clef, you’ll see the key signature and time signature.
- The key signature indicates the key in which the song is played. If it’s a key signature other than C major, it will use sharps or flats somewhere. Those sharps or flats are noted at the beginning of the piece of music.
- The key signature means that every time you play that note throughout the piece, you’ll play the sharp or flat indicated rather than the actual note. For example, the G Major scale includes an F sharp, so for the G Major key signature you’d see a sharp sign (#) over the staff line that represents the F note.
- Build a major chord. A major chord is the simplest type of chord you can play. It’s a three-note chord made up of the first, third, and fifth notes on the scale of the root note. Other chords involve making a change to the major chord.
- You can start with a C major chord, since it’s perhaps the easiest. Find the C key on your piano, then skip a key and place another finger on the third key. Skip a key and place a third finger on the fifth key. Play these three notes at the same time and you have a C Major chord.
- Applying the same theory, keep your hand in the same position but slide over one key to the D key on the piano. Notice where your fingers now fall. They should be positioned over the D, the F sharp, and the A. If you play these three notes together, you’re playing a D Major chord.
- Build a minor chord. A minor chord is played the same as a major chord, except that instead of playing the middle note you play the key to its immediate left, or one half-step lower. All minor chords are built the same way.
- You can follow this theory to form all the minor chords the same way you formed all the major chords.
- Apply chord theory to 7th chords. Seventh chords get their name from the fact that you’re playing four notes in the chord, with the fourth note being the seventh note in the root note’s scale.
- For the major seventh chord, you simply play the first, third, fifth, and seventh notes of the major scale. For C Major 7th, for example, notated as “CM7” or “Cmaj7,” you would play C-E-G-B.
- For any seventh chord that isn’t a major seventh, you want to lower the seventh note a half-step. For example, C7 would be C-E-G-B flat. C minor 7, abbreviated “Cm7,” is a C-minor chord plus the lowered seventh note: C-E flat-G-B flat.
- Move on to suspended chords. A suspended chord has an unfinished sound, because you replace the third note of the major scale with the fourth note. To remember this, think of suspending your finger over the third note and dropping it further over on the fourth.
- Ultimately, you’re playing a regular major chord, except instead of playing the first, third, and fifth notes of the scale, you’re playing the first, fourth, and fifth notes.
- Suspended chords may be represented on chord charts with the abbreviation “sus” (short for “suspended”) or with the number 4 following the root note (to indicate you play the major chord with the fourth note instead of the third).
- Use chord theory to make sense of more complex chords. Once you understand the theory behind the different chords and how they relate to the major chords, you can combine different variations to create more complex chords.
- For example, you can create a suspended seventh chord by combining a suspended chord with a seventh chord. Play the fourth note of the major scale instead of the third, and then play the lowered seventh note. All four notes played together will be a suspended seventh chord.
- While these complex chords are used rarely in popular music, if you understand chord theory you’ll have no problem playing them when you see them on chord charts or in sheet music.
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Eyebrows naturally start lighter near your nose and get darker towards the tail. When you fade your eyebrows, you’ll enhance this look. Fill in your brows with a subtle fade to achieve nice shape and lift. For a more dramatic look, make a more obvious gradient from the beginning of your brows to the ends. This also create a lovely frame for your eye. Create an ombre effect by lining and filling in your brows with different, matching shades of pencil and powder.
EditFilling in Your Brows
- Wash your face and towel dry your brows. Use a spoolie brush to brush up your eyebrows. Note the natural shape of your brows and look for any spots where your brows are sparse or uneven.
Figure out where your brows start and end. Line a thin makeup brush up along the side of your nose. The brush will hit your brow where it should start. Next, keep the brush next to your nose and move it at a 45° angle to the outer corner of your eye. This is where your brow naturally ends.
Use an eyebrow pencil to lightly draw short, upward strokes. The strokes should mimic the growth of your brow hairs. Match the color of your pencil to the color of your brows. Start drawing in the inner corners of your eyes. Slowly work your way out to the ends of your brow, lightly drawing strokes in the sparse spots.
Define your brows with pressed powder that matches your brows. With an angled brush, comb brow powder or eyeshadow through your brows to better fill them in. Use very little powder where your brows start, and add more towards the end of your brows. Try brushing the powder lightly back and forth for good coverage. This will also better define your arch.
- Pluck or wax any hairs that you don’t want.
- Trim the top of your brows if necessary.
Clean up your brows. Use your fingers to wipe away any color that’s outside your brow lines. Make the brows look sharp and clean by brushing translucent powder around the edges of your brows. Or you can clean them up by brushing color-correcting concealer around the perimeter of your brows.
- Blend the color and soften any sharp lines with by brushing your brows with your spoolie brush.
- Focus on really diffusing the color near the beginning of your brow.
- Lightly cover your brows with clear gel or clear mascara to help maintain your look all day.
EditCreating a Gradient Look
- Start with clean, dry brows. Pluck or wax any hairs you don’t want in your brow line. Brush your eyebrows upward with a spoolie brush to see the shape of your brows. Trim the tops of your brows if you have longer hairs you don’t want above your brow line.
- Line the bottom arch of your brow. Use an eyebrow pencil to line it. Shape the bottom arch into the shape you want for your brows. Make your line heavier from the center of your iris outward. You want to end with a very dark, well defined tail for your brow.
- Fill in your brows with powder. Use an angled brush and brow powder or eyeshadow to fill in any sparse areas. Make light strokes working from the inner corner of your eye outward. Also use your angled brush and powder to smooth out and blend the color from your pencil. Apply more powder at the ends of your brow.
- Consider using a slightly lighter shade of powder in the inner corner of your eye to emphasize the gradient effect.
- Diffuse the color at the beginning of your brow. Take your spoolie brush and brush through the beginning of your eyebrow. Wiggle the brush around to soften the color on the inside of your eye. Next, lightly brush your brows outward with the spoolie brush. Make sure to blend any clumps of color as you brush.
- Clean and set your brows. Outline the edges of your eyes and the rim of your bottom arch with concealer. Use a concealer brush and blend the concealer. You can also use a concealer pencil, but be sure to blend it very well. Apply some clear gel or clear mascara to set your brows.
- Further highlight your arches by feathering very light eyeshadow under your brow bone up to your eyebrow arch.
EditMaking Ombre Brows
- Begin with clean, dry, well-defined brows. Wash your face. Remove stray hairs from your brows by plucking, waxing, and/or trimming them. Use your spoolie brush to fluff up your brows. Check for sparse spots where you’ll need to fill in extra color.
- Choose two colors. Make ombre brows with any combinations of colors that you like. Choose one lighter and one darker color that match your brows for a more subtle approach. For example, you might want a light brown for the beginning of your brow and a deeper brown for the end. Select completely different colors, like gold and brown for a more stark contrast.
- Pick vibrant colors for more impact. Try choosing one color in two different shades, like light and dark blue.
- Use a pencil that matches your darker color. Use it to line the outer edges of your brows. Focus on the arch under your brows. Start with lighter strokes in the center of your eye, and make the strokes heavier as you work your way to the end of your brow. Clearly define the tail of your brow in pencil.
- Bring the end to a point if you want to emphasize your arch.
- Apply powder with an angled brow brush. Start with the lighter color. Make feathery, upward strokes at the beginning of your brow. Using the same brush, fill in your brows at the end in the darker shade. Blend the colors over your arch.
- Use a spoolie brush for better blending.
- If you’re using a vibrant color that doesn’t match your brows, be sure to fill in your entire brow with powder.
- Clean and set the color. Define the edges of your brows with a concealer brush and concealer or a concealer pencil. Add a light eyeshadow under your brow bone to highlight the ombre effect. Finish up with a clear gel or clear mascara to set the color.
- Use a matching eyeliner to really emphasize your ombre look.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Brow pencil
- Pressed brow powder or eyeshadow
- Angled brow brush
- Spoolie brush
- Clear gel or clear mascara
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You’ve just completed your first book, and you can’t wait to present it to the world. Now what? The self-publishing services offered by websites like Amazon have made it easier than ever for aspiring authors to get their works out there. Once you’ve put the finishing touches on your manuscript, you can browse Amazon’s publishing options to find the format that works best for you, enter key details, set a price and perform other tasks that will put your book into immediate circulation and help you jumpstart your career as a writer.
EditWriting and Formatting Your Book
- Finalize your book. Before you can publish your work through Amazon’s instant publishing service, you’ll want to make sure that you’ve polished it to the best of your ability. Scan your final draft for typos, syntactical errors and passages that are unnecessary or difficult to follow. Trim as much as you can to really tighten up your composition.
Create a Kindle Direct Publishing account. Visit the Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP) website and click the option to create a new account. There, you can input your personal information, including your name (or the name of your independent publishing company), address, zip code, email and phone number. Amazon will use the contact information you provide to send you important notifications throughout the publication process.
- Rigorous editing is key to publishing good literature. The easier it is to read your book, the better it will be received.
- Amazon has a strict set of content quality standards, so if your book is riddled with mistakes, it could be rejected.
- Consider having someone else, like a trusted friend or even a professional editor, proofread your book before submitting it.
Choose your preferred publication format. With KDP, you have the option of having your book printed as a traditional paperback or in digital e-reader form. Consider which would be the better way to present your work. If your book is a young adult thriller, for instance, it may have more appeal to paperback collectors, while a self-help will be more accessible to those doing their reading on a mobile device.
- KDP will also collect some basic tax information, including your social security number and Individual Taxpayer Identification, for the purpose of managing taxes and royalty payments once you start to make sales.
- If you already have an account with Amazon, you can use your login info to create a separate KDP profile.
Get your book formatted properly. If you’ve written your book on a standard word processor like Microsoft Word, it will have to be reformatted in order to display properly in either e-reader or paperback form. Fortunately, Amazon has made this easy by providing a few useful guides for helping you prepare your work with minimal hassle. Follow the steps outlined in the tutorials on the KDP website to get your book looking presentable.
- The amount of royalties you collect will differ depending on the format you select. Authors stand to receive 70% of the unit price for each digital copy sold, and as much as 80% for physical copies.
- Amazon will claim a small percentage of each sale to recoup the printing costs of paperback books.
- You also have the option to make use of multiple premade templates if you’re publishing a paperback.
- Using a format like PDF or MOBI will preserve the formatting of your original composition when it comes time to upload it, along with any graphics or additional text elements you’ve included.
EditCreating a Listing for Your Book
- Go to your Bookshelf in your KDP account. Through this hub, you’ll be able to upload your work, create and edit listings and check your user stats. Once you’ve accessed your Bookshelf, find and select either the “+ Kindle eBook” or “+ Paperback” option, depending on which format you’ve decided to go with.
- Enter your book details. Next, you’ll be taken through a series of forms prompting you to provide essential information about yourself and your work. This will include your name, the title of the book, a short description and the appropriate age range, among other things.
- At this stage, you’ll be able to pick a few identifying keywords and categories to help market to your intended audience.
- You might, for instance, categorize your book specifically as a children’s fantasy, or use keywords like “cooking,” “blogging” or “travel” to make your listing appear in focused search results.
- Take your time filling out each item—the more complete your listing is, the better chance your book will have of getting noticed.
- Choose or create the cover art for your book. If you already have an image you want to use for the cover, you can go ahead and upload it (make sure it’s an appropriate size and isn’t protected by copyright). Otherwise, the site’s built-in design feature will walk you through how to put one together yourself. Your cover needs to be able to capture the reader’s attention instantly and offer a visual summary of the book’s contents or major themes.
- Amazon recommends that images uploaded as cover art have a height/width ratio of 1:6.
- Consider hiring someone to design an original cover for your book. Professional-looking cover art will make your book more attractive to potential buyers.
- Upload your book. Click “Browse” to locate the file on your computer, then begin the upload process. This may take several minutes, especially if you’re submitting a lengthy work. You’ll still be able to make tweaks to your listing once your book has been uploaded—it won’t be sent off for publishing until you give the go ahead.
- KDP accepts most major digital file formats, including DOC, PDF, HTML and MOBI.
- Don’t forget to convert your file to Kindle format before moving on if you’re publishing an eBook.
EditSubmitting Your Book for Publication
- Preview your cover design and page layout. Use the preview function to see how your finished book will look. Once again, pay close attention to glaring typos or formatting errors. This will be one of your last chances to make any important changes before you send the book off to be published.
- Keep in mind that eBooks will be displayed differently on different screens. It may be worth previewing your book on several devices to get an idea of how it will look across the board.
- Set a price for your book. Settle on a price you think is fair. Take into account the format of the book, as well as the marketability of its subject matter. For example, it would be reasonable to charge more for a paperback textbook on theoretical physics than for a short eBook aimed at children. It may help to look at similar titles for reference when deciding on a price for your listing.
- You’ll have a couple different royalty options: 70% and 35%. In most cases, a rate of 70% will net you more money per sale. However, there’s no delivery charge for physical copies if you only claim the 35% rate, and it may be your only option if you live in a smaller market or set a price lower than $2.99 to encourage sales.
- Amazon deducts a small percentage from each sale as a “distribution fee” (even for eBooks) for publishing your work online.
- Publish your book. Once you’re satisfied with your listing, click “Publish Your Kindle eBook” or “Publish Your Paperback Book.” The files you uploaded will then be sent off to the KDP or CreateSpace content team, who will get it ready for publication. You’ll receive notifications when your book has been submitted successfully and when it goes up on the site.
- It will take up to 72 hours for your book to become available for purchase through Amazon.
- You can continue to update your listings even after your book has been officially published.
- Check your sales, feedback and other stats through your KDP account. Log in to your user portal periodically to see how your title is doing. Amazon provides daily reports to authors who use their services to publish their works. This allows you to observe how often your book is being bought and lent in real time, making you an active participant in the business side of things.
- Create an Amazon author page where readers can go to find out more about you and the titles you have available.
- Royalty statements are sent out approximately every 60 days. That means that if your book is a success, you’ll have a steady stream of revenue trickling in.
- Getting a book published has never been easier, but you should still make an effort to produce quality work that you can be proud of. Solid writing will help you build a devoted reader base.
- A catchy, intriguing title will stick in the reader’s mind, making them want to find out more.
- Select the keywords and categories for your listing carefully. These will be instrumental in making sure your book shows up in search results.
- Books on unique niche topics tend to fare better in the self-publishing market
- If you want your book to reach more eyes, consider signing up for KDP Select. In return for giving Amazon exclusive rights to your title for 90 days, they’ll use more resources to advertise it on and off the site.
- When you self-publish online, your book will not be sold in stores.
- Don’t be afraid to ask questions or make a complaint if something goes wrong during publication. Amazon will be making money off your book, too, so they should be willing to work with you to see that the process goes smoothly.
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Dentist trips can be difficult for any child. For an autistic child, it may be especially frightening. Here is how to help your child and give them the easiest possible experience at the dentist office.
EditBefore the Appointment
- Look for a disability-friendly dentist. Some dentist offices work specifically with people with disabilities. These offices have experience with disabled kids, and often know how to help the child stay as calm and happy as possible.
- Mainstreaming isn’t always the best option. A place for disabled kids is often better if it means that your child will be more comfortable.
- Tell the office ahead of time that your child has special needs, and what to expect. You can also tell them about your child’s special interests, so that the people there can talk to your child about those interests.
- Plan the appointment on a day that won’t be busy for your child. It’s best if your child is rested and relaxed, to minimize stress. Pick a day when not much is going on. This will reduce the chance of meltdowns, tears, and stress.
- Ideally, your child should have some free time before and after the appointment, to help them unwind.
- Try reading a social story about dentists to your child. Dentists can be scary for autistic children, so it helps if the child knows exactly what is going to happen.
- Talk openly about any fears your child might have. The mouth is a sensitive part of the body, and for some autistic children, it is especially sensitive. Your child may be very worried. Validate their feelings and reassure them. Here are some things you could say:
- “It’s okay if you’re scared. Many people don’t like the dentist.”
- “You’re allowed to be upset. It’s not fun to have people poking your mouth. I know Dr. Anastazi, and she always tries to be as gentle as she can.”
- “I understand if you don’t want to go. Dentists take good care of your teeth and make sure you stay healthy, so you need to go. But you’re allowed to not like it.”
- Plan a reward activity that the child can do after the dentist trip. Watching a movie, visiting a favorite park, or even buying a small toy can be things that help cheer up your child. Select the activity ahead of time, and make it something you know your child will like.
- Try telling your child about it, so they have something to look forward to. For example, if your child loves ribbons, say “After the dentist, we are going to the arts and crafts store, and you can pick out two ribbons to buy.” Then, when the child is scared at the dentist, they can think about the ribbons they will get soon.
- Choose a low-key activity if you think your child will be exhausted or overstimulated from the dentist trip.
- Don’t use food as a reward. Your child is supposed to avoid eating for a little while after the appointment.
- Feed your child before the appointment. Your child is not supposed to eat for around 30 minutes after the appointment, and a hungry child is a child that cries and melts down more easily.
- Make sure the child has enough time to eat and brush their teeth without being rushed.
EditGoing to the Dentist
- Tell the child to get ready for the dentist. Your child should brush their teeth, and pick out a stim toy or comfort object to bring along. Help them find something they can hold in one hand; they can bring it to the dentist chair.
- Don’t rush your child. This will further stress them out. Try getting them started early, so they can move slowly if they need to.
- Be extra patient and kind with your child. If your child is stressed, they may act differently, because they are struggling emotionally. Be gentle, and recognize that it isn’t easy for your child.
- Try doing something your child likes in the car. Bring the child’s favorite music, talk about their special interests, or start a sing-along if your child likes singing.
- Recognize that your child may need extra reassurance, or ask repetitive questions. This is due to stress.
- Talk to people at the dentist office about helping your child stay comfortable and calm. They may be able to make accommodations to help your child have a more pleasant visit.
- Reassure your child that you’ll be in the waiting room if they need you. Your child may be afraid of you leaving them.
- If your child has a lot of separation anxiety, ask if you could stay with your child the whole time. They may allow you to stay in the room while your child’s teeth are cleaned.
- Reward and praise your child afterwards. Tell them that they did a good job handling the dentist, and carry out the reward plan (such as watching a movie or buying a small toy). This will help your child feel better about how everything went.
- If your child had a very hard time (crying, screaming, et cetera), tell them that courage isn’t about lacking fear, but about facing their fear. So they truly did a good job: they went to the dentist, even though it was scary and difficult. Tell them you’re proud of them.
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